HUD 221(d)(4) Frequently Asked Questions
Learn everything you need to know about HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) loans with our comprehensive series of FAQs.
What are the Benefits of Non-Recourse Loans?
One of the biggest benefits of HUD 221(d)(4) loans for developers is the fact that they are non-recourse-- i.e., the lender cannot seize a borrower's personal property if they default on the loan. Instead, HUD multifamily construction loans are secured by collateral; in this case, the building and the property itself, which can be seized if the borrower defaults.
Market Rate vs. Affordable Properties in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
One of the biggest questions that developers need to ponder before starting a HUD 221(d)(4) financed project is whether to include any affordable housing. Since a developer's goal is (naturally) to maximize profit, the obvious answer would be no. However, there are a variety of advantages to including at least some affordable units in a HUD multifamily construction loan project.
Section 8 Housing and HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
Section 8 is a U.S. government housing program managed by HUD that allows for the payment of rental assistance subsidies to landlords across the country. Right now, more than 4.8 million households use some form of Section 8 program assistance. For projects using HUD 221(d)(4) financing, having Section 8 rental assistance units can have a variety of financial benefits.
Developer Fees for HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
When it comes to developer fees for HUD 221(d)(4) projects, eligibility can vary significantly from project to project. Affordable developments, as well as those using the LIHTC program, can often qualify for a developer fee. Typically, these developer fees can be anywhere between 10 and 15% of the eligible project costs.
Can You Refinance a HUD 221(d)(4) Loan?
If you get a HUD 221(d)(4) loan to create a multifamily development, can you refinance that loan later? The answer is yes, and you can do use the HUD 223(a)(7) program to do so. The program, which is designed specifically for current HUD multifamily and healthcare borrowers to refinance their projects, offers some pretty amazing terms.
AMI: Area Median Income in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
Area Median Income, or AMI, is a statistic published by HUD that estimates the median wealth of households in a specific area. AMI is used to determine qualification for a variety of housing programs, including Section 8 programs, as well as to determine eligibility for LIHTC credits.
Escrows and Replacement Reserves for HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
If you want to apply for a HUD multifamily loan, part of the HUD 221(d)(4) process involves making sure you have enough money saved in escrow-- i.e., in a third-party account, to cover a variety of expenses.
CNA: Capital Needs Assessment in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
A Capital Needs Assessment (CNA), sometimes referred to as a Physical Needs Assessment (PNA) is a type of report that can help owners and developers understand how much it will cost to maintain their project over time. That way, owner/developers, lenders, and property management can work together to develop a smart budget, and can also create estimates of the life of various systems in the building (i.e. plumbing, electrical, insulation, etc.)
Green MIP Reduction for HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
While FHA MIP is usually less expensive than the private mortgage insurance one would pay on a privately-insured loan, it can still get expensive. Fortunately, HUD is now allowing investors and developers to reduce their MIP payments to 0.25%, provided they make energy efficient improvements to their project.
Where do I find a HUD Multifamily Center?
If you're interested in getting a HUD 221(d)(4) loan, you'll likely have to do a lot of communication with your local HUD multifamily center. While your lender may do much of the coordination and communication with you (and/or for you), it may still important to for you to reach out your local HUD multifamily center with questions or concerns about the HUD multifamily construction loan process.
Large HUD 221(d)(4) Loans: What You Need to Know
While we mentioned in the loan facts section of this website that the minimum HUD 221(d)(4) loan is $2 million, and there is no upper limit, the reality can be a little bit more complex. While there technically is no financial ceiling for the program, particularly large loans are typically subject to stricter requirements, especially those involving DSCR and LTC.
HUD 221(d)(4) Loan Appraisals: What You Need to Know
One of the most important of the third-party reports required in the HUD 221(d)(4) application process is the appraisal, during which a qualified property appraiser will examine the development project to determine it's potential value, income, and profitability. This information has been taken directly from the HUD Multifamily Summary Appraisal Report.
HUD Seismic Assessments: What You Need to Know
One of the parts of the HUD loan application and approval process is getting a HUD seismic assessment, which is needed if your HUD 221(d)(4) project is located in seismic zones 3 or 4. Seismic zones 3 and 4 (based on 1997 UBC seismic zone maps) are generally located in areas including all of California, large amounts of Alaska and Hawaii, some Oregon, Washington, and Nevada, and a small amount of Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Arkansas.
What are the Pros and Cons of HUD 221(d)(4) Loans?
What are the pros and cons of HUD 221(d)(4) loans? It's a great question, since these HUD multifamily construction loans are incredibly attractive to a variety of developers and investors.
LIHTC: Low-Income Housing Tax Credits in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program, sometimes referred to as section 42, is a government initiative that encourages private investors to finance housing for low-income families and individuals. To do this, the LIHTC program provides an indirect federal subsidy in the form of a tax credit that a developer or investor can claim on their income tax return.
LTV: Loan-to-Value Ratio in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
Loan-to-value ratio (or LTV) is an assessment of risk that lenders use to determine the viability of a loan. Loans with higher LTVs are considered riskier, and therefore often have higher interest rates. Lenders believe that borrowers who have loans with higher LTVs have a greater likelihood of defaulting on their mortgages because of the lack of equity within the property. However, a higher LTV allowance means that investors and developers can get a sizable loan with less cash down.
MIP: Mortgage Insurance Premiums in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
Just like a borrower who takes out a private real estate loan has to pay private mortgage insurance (PMI), a developer who takes out an FHA multifamily construction loan has to pay a mortgage insurance premium (MIP). While the FHA doesn't make a profit on its loans, it still has to protect itself against unforeseen losses, such as a borrower defaulting on their mortgage.
What is the Federal Housing Administration's (FHA) Role in Multifamily Debt?
The Federal Housing Administration (FHA), founded in 1934, is a U.S. government agency under the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The main purpose of the FHA is to insure residential real estate loans. While many of the FHA's loans focus on individual homebuyers, the FHA also provides loans for multifamily builders and developers, including it's popular HUD 221(d)(4) loan program.
DSCR: Debt Service Coverage Ratio in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
When deciding whether to issue a loan to a borrower, one of the most important aspects a lender looks at is DSCR, or Debt Service Coverage Ratio. DSCR is a measurement of annual cash flow vs. annual debt obligations.
LTC: Loan-to-Cost Ratio in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
When looking at traditional, single-family residential loans, loan-to-value ratio (LTV) is often one of the most important factors to examine. However, when we look at HUD multifamily construction loans, like the HUD 221(d)(4) loan, and other similar types of financing, loan-to-cost ratio (LTC) also becomes an important factor.
BSPRA: Builder Sponsor Profit & Risk Allowance in Relation to HUD 221(d)(4) Loans
BSPRA, or Builder Sponsor Profit & Risk Allowance, is an additional 10% FHA 221(d)(4) loan credit, sometimes referred to as "paper equity," that can be added to the calculated replacement cost of the property. Specifically, BSPRA is calculated by taking 10% of the "hard costs" of the project, which does not including the land, and adding that to the total development costs.
Are HUD 221(d)(4) Loans Available for Age-Restricted Communities?
If you're considering getting an FHA multifamily construction loan to build an age-restricted or senior community, it's important to understand what this type of loan does and does not allow. First, let's define "senior community"-- in the eyes of FHA/HUD, that means any community for individuals 62 years and older.
What is the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Role in Multifamily Loans?
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, otherwise known as HUD, is a U.S. government agency intended to make it easier for Americans to find housing at an affordable rate. Founded in 1965, the agency incorporated the Federal Housing Administration (founded in 1934) as one of it's sub-agencies.
What are the terms and amortization of HUD multifamily construction loans/financing loans?
During construction, HUD multifamily construction loans are fixed and interest only (for up to 36 months). This is followed by an additional 40 years of fully amortized, fixed-rate payments. Altogether, there is a maximum term of 43 years, including construction.
Are the interest rates fixed with FHA 221(d)(4) loans?
One of the major benefits of a HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) loans is the fact that they have incredibly competitive interest rates. But are these interest rates fixed or variable? Let's take a look.
Do HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) loans qualify for Ginnie Mae securities?
The Government National Mortgage Association, otherwise known as Ginnie Mae, issues mortgage-backed securities, which are "backed by the full credit and faith of the U.S. government." These are based on FHA loans, which include HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) loans, as well as loans issued by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).
Can you get a rate commitment on a FHA/HUD 221(d)(4) Loan?
If you're a builder or developer interested in taking out a FHA/HUD 221(d)(4) loan to construct or rehabilitate a multifamily development, understanding what interest rate you might be paying is essential to your financial decision making process. After the preliminary underwriting on your loan is complete, a 30 to 180 day rate lock is available. However, it's subject to a 1% rate lock deposit payable which is refunded at closing.
What types of borrowers are eligible for HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) loans?
If you're looking to construct or renovate a multifamily real estate project using a HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) loan, how do you need to structure your company to be eligible for a loan? In most cases, HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) loan borrowers should be structured as single-asset/single-purpose, bankruptcy-remote entities, which can be owned or operated by nonprofit or for-profit groups.
Who is eligible to reside in HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) properties?
If you're considering building or renovating a multifamily residential property with a HUD/FHA 221(d)(4) loan, you might be wondering if it restricts or limits the kinds of residents that can live in the development. And, in pretty much every case, the answer is no.
Who can build HUD 221(d)(4) properties?
If you're interested in building multifamily housing, a HUD 221(d)(4) loan can be a great way to finance your project. But who is eligible to build a project with a HUD 221(d)(4) loan? Well, as long the borrower/developer has requisite experience and financial credentials, and HUD approves the project, almost any reputable organization or individual is edible for an FHA 221(d)(4) loan for multifamily construction.
What type of properties are eligible for construction or rehabilitation through HUD 221(d)(4)?
If you're interested in getting a low-cost, non-recourse, fixed-rate loan for a multifamily real estate development, a HUD 221(d)(4) loan could be a great option. But what kind of properties can you build or renovate with this kind of loan?
How long does it take for an HUD 221(D)(4) application to be approved?
Just how long does it take to process an HUD 221(d)(4) loan? That depends. For a MAP one-stage application, the process will take about 5-7 months, whereas, for a MAP two-stage application, the process is more likely to take around 8-10 months.
How do I apply for FHA multifamily construction loans/financing?
If you're interested in getting financing to construct or renovate a multifamily residential property, getting an FHA/HUD 221(d)(4) loan can be one of the most cost effective ways to do so. But, to get an FHA/HUD 221(d)(4) loan, you'll need to do significant preparation.
Are HUD Multifamily Construction Loans Assumable?
If you take out an HUD loan to build a multifamily property and want to sell it, can the new owner simply take on your existing mortgage? The answer is yes-- as long as they get approval from the FHA.
Does FHA multifamily construction financing place limits on rehabilitation work?
If you're considering applying for a FHA/HUD 221(d)(4) loan to rehabilitate a multifamily property, it's important to realize that there minimum FHA/HUD multifamily project size limits that must be met. Otherwise, the project won't be considered large enough to be eligible for the loan.
Do FHA/HUD 221(d)(4) loans allow for commercial development?
In today's market, many real estate developers want to mix both residential and commercial development into the same project-- for example, a multi-story residential apartment building, with a ground floor zoned for shops and restaurants. FHA/HUD 221(d)(4) loans can allow a developer to do this-- but only in specific situations.